My Free Greek Reader Textbook Now Available (Gupta)

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I am excited to announce the publication of Intermediate Biblical Greek Reader: Galatians and Related Texts. This book is an open-access textbook, which means that it is free to download and read through the George Fox digital commons. In the academic year 2017-2018, I taught an advanced Greek seminar with 8 students. Their main project was writing this Greek reader (via GoogleDocs). This textbook is designed for students who have already learned the basics of Biblical Greek grammar, syntax, and vocabulary. IBGR offers guidance for reading through the entire text of Galatians. Then, it guides the student through “related” Greek texts, such as the wider context of LXX passages that Paul quotes in Galatians, the faith/works section of James 2, and a reading from John Chrysostom’s homilies on Galatians. There are also chapters on the basics of textual criticism with examples in Galatians, and the book concludes with a short discussion of Marcion’s redaction of Galatians.

This textbook is designed for both group study (there are discussion questions in each chapter) and independent study. In each chapter, the Greek text is given, followed by study notes that include grammar and syntax helps and reminders, vocab for rare words, and other helpful textual notes. There are several lengthy theological “word studies” of important terms in Galatians such as faith, works of the law, and gospel.

This textbook was funded by the George Fox University library as well as the Open Textbook Network/Library. It is free to everyone forever. I am proud of Portland Seminary and GFU’s commitment to affordable education and the free sharing of knowledge. Please pass this book information on to teachers and students of Greek!

9 thoughts on “My Free Greek Reader Textbook Now Available (Gupta)

  1. Dear Nijay,

    I appreciate the work put into Galatians and that it was put to open-access.

    I perused the eBook to get a feel for the format and reviewed the TOC.
    1. There is no Bibliography or Scripture Index.
    2. Did you and your colleagues review Stephen Carlson’s dissertation on Galatians?
    “The Text of Galatians and Its History” is available at Duke Dissertations; or, email me at and I will send you a copy.
    3. Maybe it is just me, but a Discursus on the similarities and differences found in Galatians and Romans would be good since Galatians is written before Romans and it is uncanny the amount of material that is found in Galatians that is fleshed out in Romans especially δικαιοσυνη + cognates.

    1. 1. True
      2. We wanted to keep material simple and straightforward
      3. We wanted to just focus on readings, so we didn’t engage much beyond that except the word studies

      1. Dear Nijay,

        Thanks for your reply and responses.
        1. What is you understanding of Galatians 4:4-5?
        “ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου, ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ, γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός, γενόμενον ὑπὸ νόμον, ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον ἐξαγοράσῃ, ἵνα τὴν υἱοθεσίαν ἀπολάβωμεν.”
        The key is the two clauses, γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός, γενόμενον ὑπὸ νόμον, since they indicate a particular time that covers the phrase, ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου.
        I take it to mean that Jesus as the Son that God sent would be “born of a woman, born under the Law,” i.e. while the Old Covenant was still in effect. This would mean that the Four Gospels, Matthew 1-27, Mark 1–15, Luke 1-23 and John 1-19 were still under the Old Covenant time period. That time period would not end until death. The Resurrection would begin the New Covenant time period.

        2. When it comes time to update and revise the eBook. I would recommend adding the discursus’ and indices to the back.

        3. How would you understand the differences in 1:6-7, between ἕτερος and ἄλλος? This is especially when one considers that Paul highlights the words in I Corinthians 12:4-11 with the issue of how the Godhead, the Trinity, works in the giving out of spiritual gifts.

  2. Hello,

    Thank you so much for putting out this resource for free. It will be such a blessing.

    Would you be able to suggest a similar intermediate resource for Biblical Hebrew? After my foundation Hebrew this year, I would such a midpoint before I do my exegesis paper next year.

    Thanks for your work.

    Love from India.

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